1. The origin of Syrian civil war can be traced back in the series of anti government protest in the North African and the Middle East region in early 2011.
  2. The Middle east region consists of countries located in West Asia such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq etc. and the North Africa consists of countries such as Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt etc.arab spring
  3. These protests in the Arab world are known as the Arab Spring.
  4. The protest movement of 2011 was an expression of deep seated dissatisfaction, anger and resentment in the people against the rulers and the widespread corruption, unemployment, and rising prices in their respective countries.
  5. The protests were sparked in Tunisia on 18 December 2010 after the self-immolation of a young person in protest of police corruption and ill treatment. With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest engulfed the region.
  6. From Tunisia, it spread to Algeria, Libya, Egypt and other countries and under the public revolt, the governments there fell apart like a pack of cards.
  7. The protest subsequently reached the Syrian shores and since Syria had similar problems regarding dictatorship and Socio-Economic indicators, it was a fertile ground for the similar protests.
  8. Syrian President Bashar al-Assad has ruled Syria since July 2000. His father, Hafez al-Assad ruled Syria from 1970-2000. They have held the power tightly and any dissent is handled with an iron hand.
  9. Protests in Syria started on 26 January 2011, when a police officer assaulted a man in public and the man was arrested as well right after the assault.
  10. Further on 6 March, the Syrian security forces arrested about 15 children in southern Syria for writing slogans against the government on a boundary wall. Protests erupted over the arrest and abuse of the children.anti assad
  11. On 15 March, thousands of protesters gathered in Damascus, Aleppo, and other cities but the government repression was heavy leading to approximately 3000 arrests and a few casualties the next day.
  12. A month later, on 18 April 2011, approximately 100,000 protesters sat in the central Square calling for the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad and here too, the government responded with harsh security clampdowns and military operations.syria
  13. Such brutal was the government’s clampdown that even a section of Army defected towards protestors and founded the Free Syrian Army(FSA) whose goal was to bring down the Assad government.
  14. The Syrian civil war has grown to a magnitude of this nature only because of the intervention of other countries such as Russia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and USA due to their own interests.
  15. The FSA and other rebels fighting against the Syrian President Assad had the support of USA and Saudi Arabia where as Russia and Iran stand with Assad government.usa russia
  16. It has been a year since Putin began his intervention in Syria on the pretext that he intended to fight Islamic State (IS). For a year, the Americans and Russians tried to convince themselves that they shared common interests in Syria and could agree to fight terrorism together.
  17. But in reality, Russia is providing massive amounts of military support to one side which is the Assad government, and USA doing the same to the other side which are the rebels.
  18. Thus the Syrian protests have now turned out to be a full fledge war, while both the parties, on the international stage, are projecting themselves as mediators and as someone who is a part of a possible diplomatic solution.
  19. The civil war thus started has taken a heavy toll on the lives of people and since 2011, as per the United Nations and Arab League Envoy  to Syria (UNALES) approximately  400,000  have died in the war.
  20. There has been a lot of displacement as well. An estimated 11 million Syrians have fled their homes since the outbreak of the civil war in March 2011.syria destruction
  21. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 4.8 million have fled to Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt and Iraq, and 6.6 million are internally displaced within Syria.
  22. The side effects of this war and war led displacement are the rise of IS terrorism, refugee problem in the European nations and large scale human rights violations. The foreign players have compounded the problem in multiple ways.
  23. Read the Next post on ‘Role of Foreign intervention in Syrian Civil war‘.